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5 Hypnosis Myths Exploded

OVER the years hypnosis has picked up all sorts of weird associations from stage hypnotists, the media, and superstition. This is a great shame, because, in reality, hypnosis is your single most effective tool for change. Hypnosis is your birthright, and you should know how to use it so it doesn't use you. Here we dispel the biggest hypnosis myths.... read more

7 Public Speaking Survival Tips

Dry mouth, fast heart, sweaty palms, blank mind - yeah I've been there! It's easy to fear public speaking. But I was never just content with overcoming fear. I wanted to be a great speaker. What I needed was a way of calming down and applying simple techniques and strategies to talk like a pro.... read more

7 Ways to Soothe Your Shyness

Shy people instinctively know that they are missing out. Shyness equals lost opportunities, less pleasure and fewer social connections. Shyness can be crippling but there are tried and tested ways to make it a thing of the past.... read more

Age Regression in Therapy

Age regression in therapy is also referred to as hypnotic age regression. This is a hypnosis technique utilized by hypnotherapists to help patients remember the perceptions and feelings caused by past events that have an effect on their present illness. Hypnotic age regression occurs when a person is hypnotized and is instructed to recall a past event or regress to an earlier age. The patient may then proceed to recall or relive events in his life. If the hypnotherapist suggests that the patient is of a certain age, the patient may begin to appear to talk, act, and think according to that age. This allows for the patient to reinterpret their current situation with new information and insights.... read more


This article is about automaticity of learning. For ability of the cardiac muscles to depolarize spontaneously, see Cardiac muscle automaticity.

Automaticity is the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit. It is usually the result of learning, repetition, and practice.

Examples of automaticity are common activities such as walking, speaking, bicycle-riding, assembly-line work, and driving a car (see Highway hypnosis). After an activity is sufficiently practiced, it is possible to focus the mind on other activities or thoughts while undertaking an automaticized activity (for example, holding a conversation or planning a speech while driving a car).... read more


Autosuggestion is a psychological technique that was developed by apothecary Émile Coué at the beginning of the 20th century.

Coué graduated with a degree in pharmacology in 1876 and worked as an apothecary at Troyes from 1882 to 1910. When he began working at Troyes, he quickly discovered what later came to be known as the placebo effect. He became known for reassuring his clients by praising each remedy's efficiency and leaving a small positive notice with each given medication. Coué noticed that in specific cases he could improve the efficiency of a given medicine by praising its effectiveness to the patient. He realized that those patients to whom he praised the medicine had a noticeable improvement when compared to patients to whom he said nothing. This began Coué exploration of the use of hypnosis and the power of the imagination. In 1901, he began to study under Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault and Hippolyte Bernheim, two leading exponents of hypnosis. After completing his tutelage, he began relying on hypnosis to treat patients..... read more

Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 - 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, the founder of analytical psychology. Jung is considered the first modern psychiatrist to view the human psyche as "by nature religious" and make it the focus of exploration. Jung is one of the best known researchers in the field of dream analysis and symbolization. While he was a fully involved and practicing clinician, much of his life's work was spent exploring tangential areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, and sociology, as well as literature and the arts.... read more

Cognitive Reframing

Cognitive reframing consists of changing the way people see things and trying to find alternative ways of viewing ideas, events, situations, or a variety of other concepts. In the context of cognitive therapy, cognitive reframing is referred to as cognitive restructuring. Cognitive reframing, on the other hand, refers to the process as it occurs either voluntarily or automatically in all settings.... read more


Counselling offers an opportunity to explore personal issues, in a private setting, with someone who has no other role in our life. Talking things over with a trained listener can often help us to gain new perspective. Counsellors' do not generally give advice, or offer a prescribed course of action that provides a cure. Instead, counselling is a joint process that requires motivation and active involvement on both parts.
A counsellor helps us to explore feelings, thoughts and personal experiences, as we work toward a solution. Counsellors' are trained to be non-judgmental, reflective, and.... read more

Covert Hypnosis

Covert hypnosis is a phenomenon not too different from indirect hypnosis, as derived from Milton H. Erickson and popularized as "The Milton Model" in style, but the defining feature is that the hypnotized individual subsequently engages in hypnotic phenomena without conscious effort or choice. Covert hypnosis, like "Ericksonian Hypnosis", "operates through covert and subtle means... to reach deeper levels of consciousness than are touched by the surface structure of language". It is the concept that an individual, 'the hypnotist,' can control another individual's behavior via gaining rapport. During hypnosis, the operator (hypnotist) makes suggestions. The subject is intended to not be completely aware, on a conscious level, of the manipulation. Notable covert hypnotists such as Igor Ledochowski has taken the "Ericksonian Hypnosis" technique and developed it even further.... read more

Desensitization Therapy

In psychology, desensitization (also called inurement) is defined as the diminished emotional responsiveness to a negative or aversive stimulus after repeated exposure to it. It also occurs when an emotional response is repeatedly evoked in situations in which the action tendency that is associated with the emotion proves irrelevant or unnecessary. Desensitization is a process primarily used to assist individuals unlearn phobias and anxieties. John Wolpe (1958) developed a method of a hierarchal list of anxiety evoking stimuli in order of intensity, which allows individuals to undergo adaption. Although medication is available for individuals suffering from anxiety, fear or phobias, empirical evidence supports desensitization with high rates of cure, particularly in clients suffering from depression or schizophrenia.... read more

Ericksonian Hypnosis

Milton Hyland Erickson, (5 December 1901 in Aurum, Nevada - 25 March 1980 in Phoenix, Arizona) was an American psychiatrist specializing in medical hypnosis and family therapy. He was founding president of the American Society for Clinical Hypnosis and a fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychopathological Association. He is noted for his approach to the unconscious mind as creative and solution-generating. He is also noted for influencing brief therapy, strategic family therapy, family systems therapy, solution focused brieftherapy, and neuro-linguistic programming.... read more

Exposure Therapy

Exposure therapy is a technique in behavior therapy intended to treat anxiety disorders and involves the exposure to the feared object or context without any danger in order to overcome their anxiety. Procedurally it is similar to the fear extinction paradigm in rodent work. Numerous studies have demonstrated its effectiveness in the treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD and specific phobias.... read more

Flooding (psychology)

"Flooding" is an effective form of treatment for phobias amongst other psychopathologies. It works on the principles of classical conditioning or respondent conditioning - a form of Pavlov's classical conditioning - where patients change their behaviors to avoid negative stimuli. According to Pavlov, we learn through associations, so if we have a phobia it is because we associate the feared object or stimulus with something negative.... read more

Franz Mesmer

Franz Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 - March 5, 1815), sometimes, albeit incorrectly, referred to as Friedrich Anton Mesmer, was a German physician with an interest in astronomy, who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called magnétisme animal (animal magnetism) and other spiritual forces often grouped together as mesmerism. Mesmerism is considered to be a form of vitalism and shares features with other vitalist theories that also emphasize the movement of life "energy" through distinct channels in the body. In 1843 James Braid, a Scottish physician proposed the term hypnosis for a technique derived from magnetism but more limited in its claimed effects, and also different in its conception. Mesmer's name is the root of the English verb "mesmerize".... read more

Gastric Band Hypnosis (Virtual Gastric Band)

The Virtual gastric band (VGB) is a procedure of hypnotherapy intended to make the brain believe that the stomach is smaller than it really is, with the purpose of limiting the amount of food ingested. The virtual gastric band is based on the idea of the surgical gastric band. There is no certainty of its origins as the concept has been constructed in a number of ways by various hypnotherapists the first of which were Martin & Marion Shirran at the Elite Clinic in Spain, after world wide media attention they registered the trade mark for the Gastric Mind Band in North America and Europe.... read more

Guided Meditation

Guided Meditation is a process by which one or more participants meditate in response to the guidance provided by a trained practitioner or teacher, either in person or via a written text, sound recording, video, or audiovisual media comprising music or verbal instruction, or a combination of both.

This process often leads to the participant engaging in visualization and generating mental imagery that simulates or re-creates the sensory perception of sights, sounds, tastes, smells, movements, and images associated with touch, such as texture, temperature, and pressure, as well as imagined mental content that the participant experiences as defying conventional sensory categories.... read more

Habit (psychology)

Habits (or wonts) are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously. In the American Journal of Psychology it is defined in this way: "A habit, from the standpoint of psychology, is a more or less fixed way of thinking, willing, or feeling acquired through previous repetition of a mental experience." Habitual behavior often goes unnoticed in persons exhibiting it, because a person does not need to engage in self-analysis when undertaking routine tasks. Habituation is an extremely simple form of learning, in which an organism, after a period of exposure to a stimulus, stops responding to that stimulus in varied manners. Habits are sometimes compulsory. The process by which new behaviours become automatic is habit formation. Examples of habit formation are the following: If you instinctively reach for a cigarette the moment you wake up in the morning, you have a habit. Also, if you lace up your running shoes and hit the streets as soon as you get home, you've acquired a habit. Old habits are hard to break and new habits are hard to form because the behavioural patterns we repeat are imprinted in our neural pathways. But the good news is that it is possible to form new habits through repetition.... read more

Highway Hypnosis

Highway hypnosis, also known as white line fever, is a mental state in which a person can drive a truck or automobile great distances, responding to external events in the expected manner with no recollection of having consciously done so. In this state, the driver's conscious mind is apparently fully focused elsewhere, with seemingly direct processing of the masses of information needed to drive safely. Highway hypnosis is just one manifestation of a relatively commonplace experience, where the conscious and unconscious minds appear to concentrate on different things.... read more

How Neediness and Emotional Insecurity Destroy Relationships

"Please, clouds, don't rain!" Not going to work, is it?

And neither will trying to reassure someone who just can't be reassured. They will go on fretting, no matter how you plead.

Chronic insecurity in your relationship is a major problem. Why? Because relationships really, deeply matter. Your health, your wellbeing, your happiness affected by your relationships more than any other factor. And your most intimate relationships have the biggest effect of all.... read more

How to Hypnotize Your Audience

The first thing any good hypnosis trainer will tell you is that to be an effective hypnotist, you need to be confident. That way you inspire confidence in your subject and they are free to relax with you.

The same is true if you want to hypnotize your audience when presenting. First, you need to inspire confidence in them, and to do that you need to be free of anxiety.

And when I talk about hypnotizing your audience, please forget the clichés of watch swinging, cluck-like-a-chicken merchants. I'm talking about the hypnosis of life.... read more


Hypnobirthing is a term used in the hypnotherapy and medical professions for the use of hypnosis or hypnotherapy in childbirth. See 'Commercial use of the term Hypnobirthing' below. The movement started with the work of English obstetrician Grantly Dick-Read (1890-1959), and culminated in his book Childbirth without Fear, first published in 1942. The work was further developed in 1987 by Marie Mongan in America.

The use of hypnobirthing has become widely known among women and in obstetric units as an increasingly popular means of achieving a natural childbirth. In 2011, the UK's National Health Service (NHS) began an 18-month trial study on the effectiveness of hypnobirthing, involving 800 first-time mothers-to-be. Hypnobirthing has been incorporated into the services provided in many NHS hospitals.... read more


Hypnodermatology is an informal label for the use of hypnosis in treating the skin conditions that fall between conventional medical dermatology and the mental health disciplines.

The use of hypnosis to provide relief for some skin conditions is based on observations that the severity of the disease may correlate with emotional issues. In addition, hypnotherapy has been used to suggest improvement on dermatological symptoms, such as chronic psoriasis, eczema, ichtyosis, warts and alopecia areata.... read more


Hypnosurgery is the term given to an operation where the patient is sedated using hypnotherapy rather than traditional anaesthetics. It is still in its experimental stages, and not often used. During hypnosurgery, the Hypnotherapist helps the patient control their subconscious reflexes so that they do not feel pain in the traditional sense. Patients are aware of sensation as the operation progresses and often describe a tingling or tickling sensation when pain would normally be expected. Hypnosis is used in surgery for pain management, to control spasms in the alimentary canal, during rehabilitation and as anaesthesia during operation.... read more

Hypnotherapy - The Facts

Hypnotherapy is therapy that is undertaken with a subject in hypnosis. The word 'hypnosis' (from the Greek hypnos, 'sleep') is an abbreviation of James Braid's (1843) term 'neuro-hypnotism', meaning 'sleep of the nervous system'. A person who is hypnotised displays certain unusual characteristics and propensities, compared with a non-hypnotised subject, most notably hyper-suggestibility, which some authorities have considered a sine qua non of hypnosis. For example, Clark L. Hull, probably the first major empirical researcher in the field, wrote.... read more

Hypnotherapy in Childbirth

Hypnotherapy can be used during pregnancy and childbirth to prepare a mother for birth and/or to attempt to treat a number of issues ranging from fears and minor health conditions related to the pregnancy, to the possibility of reducing or eliminating pain during labor. Hypnotherapy is the process of interactive therapy with a certified clinical hypnotherapist to determine and resolve the root cause(s) of any overwhelming fears, beliefs and attitudes. There are many basic hypnosis techniques that can be used throughout pregnancy and childbirth for the purposes of relaxation, sleep, physical comfort, preparation for childbirth and preparation for parenthood.... read more

Hypnotic Induction

Hypnotic induction is the process undertaken by a hypnotist to establish the state or conditions required for hypnosis to occur. Self-hypnosis is possible, in which a subject listens to a taped induction or plays the roles of both hypnotist and subject.

It may well be that hypnotic induction is a necessary process designed to cause the subject to enter a state of increased suggestibility, during which their critical faculties are reduced and they are more prone to accept the commands and suggestions of the hypnotist. This state is known as a "trance." Hypnotic induction, therefore, is whatever is necessary to get a person into the state of trance.... read more

Hypnotic Susceptibility

Hypnotic susceptibility measures how easily a person can be hypnotized. Several types of scales are used; however, the most common are the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales. The Harvard Group Scale (HGSS), as the name implies, is administered predominantly to large groups of people while the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS) is administered to individuals. No scale can be seen as completely reliable due to the nature of hypnosis. It has been argued that no person can be hypnotized if they do not want to be; therefore, a person who scores very low may not want to be hypnotized, making the test scores invalid.... read more

Ideomotor Phenomenon

The ideomotor effect is a psychological phenomenon wherein a subject makes motions unconsciously; for example, the body produces tears in response to powerful emotions, without the person consciously deciding to cry.

As in reflexive responses to pain, the body sometimes reacts reflexively to ideas alone without the person consciously deciding to take action. For instance, tears are produced by the body unconsciously in reaction to powerful emotions. The effects of automatic writing, dowsing, facilitated communication, and Ouija boards have been attributed to the phenomenon. Mystics have often attributed these effects to paranormal or supernatural force.... read more

Implicit Memory

Implicit memory is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences. Evidence for implicit memory arises in priming, a process whereby subjects are measured by how they have improved their performance on tasks for which they have been subconsciously prepared. Implicit memory also leads to the illusion-of-truth effect, which suggests that subjects are more likely to rate as true those statements that they have already heard, regardless of their veracity. In daily life, people rely on implicit memory every day in the form of procedural memory, the type of memory that allows people to remember how to tie their shoes or ride a bicycle without consciously thinking about these activities. Research into implicit memory indicates that it operates through a different mental process from explicit memory.... read more

Improve Your Self Confidence in 15 Minutes

I used to be frighteningly under confident in social situations. And although people who know me now would never believe I used to doubt myself so much I literally had to learn confidence until it became a natural part of me. I can tell you relaxed optimistic confidence is just, well so much more fun.... read more

James Braid

James Braid (19 June 1795 - 25 March 1860) was born at Ryelaw House, in the parish of Portmoak, Kinross, Scotland. He was the son of James Braid and Anne Suttie. He married Margaret Mason (or Meason) on 17 November 1813. They had two children, James (born 1822), and a daughter. A Scottish physician and surgeon, specialising in eye and muscular conditions, Braid was an important and influential pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy. Braid adopted the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism" or nervous sleep (that is, sleep of the nerves), in his lectures of 1841-2, and it is from his influential work that others derived the term "hypnosis" in the 1880s. Braid is regarded by many as the first genuine "hypnotherapist" and the "Father of Modern Hypnotism".... read more

Neuro-linguistic Programming

Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) is an approach to communication, personal development, and psychotherapy created in the 1970s. The title refers to a stated connection between the neurological processes ("neuro"), language ("linguistic") and behavioral patterns that have been learned through experience ("programming") and can be organized to achieve specific goals in life. According to certain neuroscientists, psychologists and linguists, NLP is unsupported by current scientific evidence, and uses incorrect and misleading terms and concepts.... read more

Panic Attacks

Panic attacks are very sudden, discrete periods of intense anxiety, mounting physiological arousal, fear, stomach problems and discomfort that are associated with a variety of somatic and cognitive symptoms. The onset of these episodes is typically abrupt, and may have no obvious triggers. Although these episodes may appear random, they are a subset of an evolutionary response commonly referred to as fight or flight that occur out of context.  This response floods the body with hormones, particularly epinephrine (adrenaline), that aid it in defending against harm.... read more

Past Life Regression

Past life regression is a technique that uses hypnosis to recover what practitioners believe are memories of past lives or incarnations, though others regard them as fantasies or delusions or a type of confabulation. Past life regression is typically undertaken either in pursuit of a spiritual experience, or in a psychotherapeutic setting. Most advocates loosely adhere to beliefs about reincarnation, though religious traditions that incorporate reincarnation generally do not include the idea of repressed memories of past lives.... read more

Person-centred Counselling

Person-centred counselling (sometimes also referred to as client-centred counselling) was the creation of Carl Rogers.  Rogers believed that every human being has a huge capacity for personal growth. Rogers saw this ability to bring about a positive change as being present even if you found yourself in a situation where it was difficult to believe this was true.

Rogers believed that attitudes, rather than techniques, are what is important in a talking treatment. If the ideal environment is provided, the client can more easily let go of fears or anxieties and begin to see their situation in a more realistic way.... read more

Posthypnotic Amnesia

Posthypnotic amnesia is the inability in hypnotic subjects to recall events that took place while under hypnosis. This can be achieved by giving individuals a suggestion during hypnosis to forget certain material that they have learned either before or during hypnosis. Individuals who are experiencing posthypnotic amnesia cannot have their memories recovered once put back under hypnosis and is therefore not state dependent. Nevertheless, memories may return when presented with a pre-arranged cue. This makes posthypnotic amnesia similar to psychogenic amnesia as it disrupts the retrieval process of memory. It has been suggested that inconsistencies in methodologies used to study posthypnotic amnesia cause varying results.... read more

Psychosomatic Medicine

Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field studying the relationships of social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals.

The academic forebear of the modern field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving diverse specialties including psychiatry, psychology, neurology, surgery, allergy, dermatology and psychoneuroimmunology. Clinical situations where mental processes act as a major factor affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence.... read more

Reassuring Reasons Why Hypnosis is Your Friend

If you don't know much about a topic it's easy to be suspicious. Some people assume hypnosis is akin to a carnival side show, others consider it mystic mumbo jumbo or 'mind control.' For those who look beyond the hype the truth is far more illuminating.... read more

Recreational Hypnosis

Recreational hypnosis, also called erotic hypnosis, is the practice of hypnosis for recreational purposes. Techniques such as persuasion and mind control are often included in the practice. Erotic hypnosis is typically, but not exclusively, practiced within the BDSM subculture. Recreational hypnosis does not include amateur hypnotherapy nor the therapeutic application of neurolinguistic programming and similar disciplines.

Reducing inhibitions and increasing arousal is a notable goal of recreational hypnosis. The placement of trigger words in the subject's mind as post-hypnotic suggestion to produce actions and experiences on-demand is a common practice. Erotic hypnosis can include suggestions intended to improve sexual health.... read more


Self-hypnosis is used extensively in modern hypnotherapy. It can take the form of hypnosis carried out by means of a learned routine. The English term "hypnotism" was introduced in 1841 by the Scottish physician and surgeon James Braid. According to Braid, he first employed "self-hypnotism" (as he elsewhere refers to it) two years after discovering hypnotism.... read more

Sexual Dysfunction Explained

Sexual dysfunction or sexual malfunction: sexual function refers to a difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including desire, arousal or orgasm. Sexual dysfunction disorders may be classified into four categories: sexual desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasm disorders and pain disorders.... read more

Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (6 May 1856 - 23 September 1939), was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis. Freud's family and ancestry were Jewish. Freud always considered himself a Jew even though he rejected Judaism and had a critical view of religion. Freud's parents were poor, but ensured his education. Freud was an outstanding pupil in high school, and graduated the Matura with honors in 1873. Interested in philosophy as a student, Freud later turned away from it and became a neurological researcher into cerebral palsy, Aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy.... read more


Sleep is a naturally recurring state characterized by reduced or absent consciousness, relatively suspended sensory activity, and inactivity of nearly all voluntary muscles. It is distinguished from quiet wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, and is more easily reversible than being in hibernation or a coma. Sleep is a heightened anabolic state, accentuating the growth and rejuvenation of the immune, nervous, skeletal and muscular systems. It is observed in all mammals, all birds, and many reptiles, amphibians, and fish.
The purposes and mechanisms of sleep are only partially clear and are the subject of.... read more


In mathematics, a spiral is a curve which emanates from a central point, getting progressively farther away as it revolves around the point. While a "spiral" and a "helix" are distinct as technical terms, a helix is sometimes described as a spiral in non-technical usage. The two primary definitions of a spiral are provided by the American Heritage Dictionary: a. A curve on a plane that winds around a fixed center point at a continuously increasing or decreasing distance from the point. b. A three-dimensional curve that turns around an axis at a varying distance while moving parallel to the axis.... read more

Sports Hypnosis

Hypnosis has been used in various professions including dentistry, medicine, psychotherapy and sports, as a performance enhancement tool. Sports hypnosis incorporates cognitive and sports science methodologies. Hypnosis in sports therefore overlaps with areas such as biomechanics, nutrition, physiology and sports psychology. Generally sports hypnosis is studied within the field of sports psychology, which examines the impact of psychological variables on athletes' performance. While sports psychology began to be studied around the 1920s, the study and use of hypnosis was not documented until the 1950s. Members of the Russian Olympic team are said to have made use of hypnosis as a performance-enhancing tool around this time.... read more

Stress (psychological)

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Symptoms may include a sense of being overwhelmed, feelings of anxiety, overall irritability, insecurity, nervousness, social withdrawal, loss of appetite, depression, panic attacks, exhaustion, high or low blood pressure, skin eruptions or rashes, insomnia, lack of sexual desire (sexual dysfunction), migraine, gastrointestinal difficulties (constipation or diarrhea), and for women, menstrual symptoms. It may also cause more serious conditions such as heart problems. Also, experimental research which has been performed on animals, also displayed results relating to stress and negative effects on the body. It has been shown that stress contributes to the initiation and development of specific tumors within the body.... read more


In psychology, the subconscious is the part of consciousness that is not currently in focal awareness. The word subconscious is an anglicized version of the French subconscient as coined by the psychologist Pierre Janet, who argued that underneath the layers of critical thought functions of the conscious mind lay a powerful awareness that he called the subconscious mind. Because there is a limit to the information that can be held in conscious focal awareness, a storehouse of one's knowledge and prior experience is needed; this is the subconscious.... read more

Subliminal Stimuli

Subliminal stimuli; (literally "below threshold"), contrary to supraliminal stimuli or "above threshold", are any sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception. Some research has found that subliminal messages do not produce strong or lasting changes in behavior. However, a recent review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies shows that subliminal stimuli activate specific regions of the brain despite participants being unaware. Visual stimuli may be quickly flashed before an individual can process them, or flashed and then masked, thereby interrupting the processing. Audio stimuli may be played below audible volumes, masked by other stimuli.... read more


Suggestion is the psychological process by which one person guides the thoughts, feelings, or behaviour of another. Nineteenth century writers on psychology such as William James used the words "suggest" and "suggestion" in senses close to those they have in common speech - one idea was said to suggest another when it brought that other idea to mind. Early scientific studies of hypnosis by Clark Leonard Hull and others extended the meaning of these words in a special and technical sense (Hull, 1933). The original neuro-psychological theory of hypnotic suggestion was based upon the ideo-motor reflex response of William B. Carpenter and James Braid.... read more

The History of Hypnosis

This article is about the development of concepts, beliefs and practices related to hypnosis and hypnotherapy from prehistoric to modern times. Although often viewed as one continuous history, it is important to note that the term 'hypnosis' only gained widespread use after James Braid coined the term 'hypnotism' in 1841.... read more

The Mind: Conscious/Subconscious

The human mind should not be confused with the human brain. The brain is a physical organ weighing-in at approximately four pounds and made of real flesh and blood; living tissue with actual substance. The human mind is apparently invisible, but without it we would not be able to function as human beings.... read more

Therapy Comparison - Which Treatment is Best For You?

The best treatment is the one that works most effectively for you. Nevertheless, all therapy treatments are found to be helpful by some of those who try them, and if one doesn't seem to be helping after giving it a reasonable chance, then perhaps you should consider trying a different method until you find some benefit. The sheer variety of psychological therapies can make choosing quite a confusing matter, so to make life a little easier we have listed below what are perhaps some of the most popular types, including a brief description of each.... read more

Unconscious Mind

The unconscious mind (often simply called the unconscious) is all the processes of the mind which are not available to consciousness. The term unconscious mind was coined by the 18th century German romantic philosopher Friedrich Schelling and later introduced into English by the poet and essayist Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The concept gained prominence due to the influence of Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud. Unconscious phenomena have been held to include repressed feelings, automatic skills, unacknowledged perceptions, thoughts, habits and automatic reactions, complexes, hidden phobias and desires. Within psychoanalysis the cognitive processes of the unconscious are considered to manifest in dreams in a symbolical form.... read more

Understanding Stress

The term 'stress' was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularised the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, 'stress' refers to the reaction of the organism, and 'stressor' to the perceived threat.... read more

What is Hypnosis?

Hypnosis is a mental state (state theory) or set of attitudes (nonstate theory) usually induced by a procedure known as a hypnotic induction, which is commonly composed of a series of preliminary instructions and suggestions. Hypnotic suggestions may be delivered by a hypnotist in the presence of the subject ('hetero-suggestion'), or may be self-administered ('self-suggestion' or 'autosuggestion'). The use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy".... read more

Why Counselling?

There are many reasons why, at some point in our life, we may all benefit from the services of a professionally trained and registered counsellor. You may recently have lost a loved one, or feel generally depressed, lacking in energy or motivation, as though life has no purpose. Perhaps you are leading a life that you feel is simply not right for you, but feel trapped and powerless to change. At a counselling session you may wish to explore your hopes, or fears, surrounding a possible change of direction in your life. It may be that you're leaving a long-term relationship, beginning a new career, making a move abroad, or looking toward milestones in your life, such as marriage, planning a family, or retirement.... read more

Why Hypnosis Can Cure Social Anxiety

Why do you think we have emotions? Wouldn't live be simpler without them? Do we have emotions to give middle class people something to talk about or to provide soap opera writers with script material?

Of course not. As with everything else in human makeup, emotions exist to keep us safe and alive and able to thrive.... read more

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